K/DOQI Clinical Practice Guidelines on Hypertension and Antihypertensive Agents in Chronic Kidney Disease


THE WORK GROUP thanks the National Kidney Foundation for support and guidance during this project. Anthony Gucciardo, Margaret Klette, Elicia Schachne, Donna Fingerhut, and Kerry Willis, PhD, were instrumental in coordinating the project. The KDOQI Chairs and Advisory Board provided constructive criticism that helped shape the project. The KDOQI Support Group provided practical advice to facilitate implementation. Kenneth Doyle, MS, PhD, consultant editor, provided invaluable assistance in preparing the report.

The Work Group is indebted to the Evidence Review Team, who worked tirelessly to assemble the evidence and creatively to synthesize the information.

The Work Group appreciates the careful review of the draft guidelines and suggestions for improvement by external reviewers. Each comment was carefully considered and, whenever possible, suggestions for change were incorporated into the final report. As a result, the KDOQI Blood Pressure Management and Use of Antihypertensive Agents in CKD guidelines is the product of the Work Group, the Evidence Review Team, the NKF, and all those who contributed their effort to make the Guidelines better.

The following individuals provided written review of the draft guidelines: Nihal Younis Abosaif, MD; Ayo Arije, MB, BS, FMCP; Naveen K. Atray, MD; Kori J. Baade; Julie A Barboza, MS, MSN, RD, APRN-BC; Ali Basci, MD; Gavin J. Becker, MD, MBBS; Ezequiel Bellorin-Font, MD; Judith A. Beto, PhD, RD, FADA; Madhu Bhaskaran, MD, DM; Rudy Bilous, MD; Rossini C. Botev, MD; Karen Burchell, PA-C; Richard Burden, MD; Jerrilynn D. Burrowes, PhD, RD, CDN; Lawrence H. Byrd, MD, FACP; Vito M. Campese, MD; Laurence E. Carroll, MD; Bernard Charra, MD; Leesa Conley, BSN; Thomas A. Depner, MD; Johanna Dwyer, DSc,RD; George Dy, MD; Daniela Fimian, RD; Frederick O. Finkelstein, MD; Suzanne Gagne, RN, CNN; Catia Gargan, MSN, FNP, CNN; William Haskell Gates, CPA; Thomas A. Golper, MD; Janelle E Gonyea, RD, LD; Jane H Greene, RD, CSR, LDN; William E. Haley, MD; John Hartman, MD; Ronald J. Hogg, MD; Melinda L Hogue, MSW, LISW; Alan R. Hull, MD; Vivekanand Jha, MD; Richard J. Johnson, MD; Ali Kemal Kadiroglu, MD; Edward S. Krause, MD; Kiyoshi Kurokawa, MD; Craig B. Langman, MD; Edgar Lerma; Karel M. Leunissen, MD, PhD, MD; Nathan W. Levin, MD, FACP; Stuart J. Linus, MD; Francesco Locatelli, MD; Gerard London, MD; Marion Makhuli; Maureen A. Michael, RN; Louise M. Moist, MD; Mark E. Molitch, MD; Joyce Mooty, EdM, MPH, RD; Zaki Morad, MD; John Mouratoff, MD; Mohsen Nafar, MD; Andrew S. Narva, MD; Allen R. Nissenson, MD; Gregorio T. Obrador, MD; Rulan Parekh, MD; David Parra, PharmD, BCPS; Thakor G. Patel, MD; Glenda Payne, RN, MS, CNN; Francesco Pizzarelli, MD; L. Michael Prisant, MD; Karthik Ranganna, MD; Susan M. Reams, RD, CSR, LD; Rodney Riesland, RN, MSN, APRN-BC; Eberhard Ritz, MD; Patricia J. Roberts, MS, RN, CNN; Jerome Rossert, MD; Ramesh Saxena, MD, PhD; Velma Scantlebury, MD; Anton C. Schoolwerth, MD, FAHA; Paul Segal, MD; Sheldon G. Sheps, MD; Yuriy Sirenko, MD; Leslie A. Spry, MD, FACP; Gerald A. Stair, MD; Theodore I. Steinman, MD; Sumeska Thavarajah, MD; Roberta Thorpe; Robert D. Toto, MD; Ruth Tutor, MSN, RN, CCRN, APRN; Katherine R Tuttle, MD; David B. Van Wyck, MD; Raymond Vanholder, PhD, MD; Joseph Vassalotti, MD; Rowan Walker, MBBS, FRACP, MD; Haiyan Wang, MD; Jean-Pierre Wauters, MD; Nanette Wenger, MD; Holly Whicombe; Eric John J. Will, MD, MA, FRCP; Mark E. Williams, MD.

Organizations that took part in the review process include: Abbott Laboratories, Inc.; American Association of Clinical Endocrinology; American Association of Kidney Patients; American Diabetes Association; American Federation for Medical Research; American Nephrology Nurses Association; American Pediatric Society; American Society of Hypertension; American Society of Nephrology; American Society of Pediatric Nephrology; Dialysis Clinic, Inc.; European Best Practice Guidelines; ESRD Network #3; ESRD Network #16; Forum of ESRD Networks; International Society of Hypertension in Blacks; National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; New York Diabetes Association; Renal Physicians Association; and The American College of Physicians.

Participation in the review does not necessarily constitute endorsement of the content of the report by the individuals or the organization or institution they represent.

The National Kidney Foundation, as well as the Work Group, recognize the support of AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals. The National Kidney Foundation is proud to partner with AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals on this important initiative.

As Chair of the Work Group, I personally wish to thank the other members of the Work Group, who volunteered their knowledge, patience, hard work, and countless hours to this project. Their willingness to learn, as well as teach, is the basis for new approaches contained in this guideline. I would like to give special thanks to the following individuals: Michael Rocco, MD, Vice-Chair of the Work Group, who encouraged us to simplify our message; George Bakris, MD, and Tom Hostetter, MD, who maintained close liaison with the American Diabetes Association and JNC-7; Katrin Uhlig, MD, Assistant Director of the Evidence Review Team, who worked with each member of the Work Group to develop criteria and forms and to review evidence and who created algorithms in this document; and Joseph Lau, MD, whose insight, creativity, and practical solutions make our best work even better. Finally, I wish to thank Garabed Eknoyan, MD, who continues to inspire us by his vision, wisdom, and commitment.